Practically, all modern languages descend from C, and thus use most of C's principles and basic structures. C is a perfect place to start learning about basic programming. C can be a launching platform for both more advanced C (like embedded operating systems), or, more likely, object oriented languages like C++ and Objective-C.
Building on the previous article on Method of Complements, lets take a look at the difference between signed and unsigned integer types.
or subtraction using addition
Most people would agree that subtraction is more difficult, time consuming, and error prone than addition.
The Primitive Data Types are data types that are used in every day in programming and usually correspond to the most basic building blocks of all the other Objects or data types you will be programming with down the road.
Topically, hexadecimal is extremely useful for programmers to understand, and makes binary in general quite a bit easier to work with and represent both in code and out.
Though not as important as understanding binary in general, looking at some simple math in binary will allow you to conceptualize some of the operations that you will be working with on a regular basis.
I personally believe that a basic, if not strong, understanding of the binary (or base 2) counting is crucial to understanding how computers work. And, thus, to being a good programmer.